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By Heiko Haumann

The origins and lifetime of East ecu Jewry took on new old and political significance after the Holocaust. In Poland by myself ninety nine consistent with cent of Polish Jews 3 million in all have been killed; Yiddish as a spoken language kind of disappeared. This quantity provides a heritage of East ecu Jewry from its beginnings to the interval after the Holocaust. It supplies an summary of the demographic, political, socioeconomic, spiritual and cultural stipulations of Jewish groups in Poland, Russia, Bohemia and Moravia.Interesting issues comprise the tale of early settlers, the 'Golden Age', the impact of the Kabbalah and Hasidism. bright pics of Jewish relations existence and non secular customs make the booklet stress-free to learn.

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Encouraged by this victory, Ukrainian peasants rebelled and joined forces with the Cossacks. The Crimean Tatars, vassals of the Turks who had long been in conflict with the Poles, also supported the rebels. In campaigns of unprecedented cruelty which lasted over many years, with short breaks and varying success, the Cossacks and their allies plundered large parts of what was then Poland and Lithuania: Ukraine, White Russia, and Polissya, Volhynia, Podolia, and regions of Red Ruthenia. Kiev, Minsk, and Brest-Litovsk were captured.

Of course, this could easily lead to hairsplitting. As a result, many rabbis—such as Lubliner Salomon Luria (1510-1573)—turned against pilpul and in its place approved a rational method, strictly oriented towards the object of discussion. Nevertheless, pilpul remained predominant for a long time. Of the great scholars of that period mention should certainly be made of Moses Isserles (1520-1572). He led the Yeshiva, the school of Talmudic learning, founded by Jacob Pollak in Cracow and wrote many important works on religion, philosophy, and as well as secular fields of study.

They found employment on those noble estates which had been smitten by the hand of war. More than ever before nobles were now bringing in Jews as lessees and administrators. But even in the towns, not least in the 'private towns' of the nobility, the Jews once again played an important economic role. The symbiosis which existed within the framework of the Jews' intermediary-function seemed to reassert itself, even to become deeper. Szybuscz is an old town and has been inhabited by Jews since the beginning of the migration; in the year 1648, when destruction came upon the town, the great synagogue was burned down and everyone in the town was murdered.

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