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By John D Grainger

Alexander's demise was once no longer unpredictable: he suffered repeated wounds in the course of his lifetime, and a couple of introduced him close to demise; he drank an excessive amount of; he constructed a fever, within which he persevered to drink an excessive amount of; he believed he used to be a god; he ignored his doctor's advice; he used to be confronted with large difficulties which he deliberate to dodge by means of occurring crusade ... As a last act of irresponsibility, whilst requested to whom Read more...

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41 Given the previous history of the kingdom, the events which followed are not a surprise. Having been pushed out of Thessaly, Alexander was seen to be in a weak position and was humiliated by the ease with which Pelopidas had swatted him down. Ptolemy of Aloros had the support of Amyntas’ widow Eurydike, in a relationship distant observers assumed was sexual. 42 This had clearly been likely from the time he had become ‘reconciled’ to Alexander after his rebellion the year before, yet allowed to live on in the kingdom.

15 China was separated from all the rest of the civilized world by formidable mountains and by the nomad-inhabited Steppes of Mongolia and Central Asia. 16 It is useful to see Persepolis as the political centre of the world, with the Akhaimenid empire the stable and rich element around which other political societies were grouped – China, the nomads, India, Greece, Italy, Sicily. But it is also notable that by 360 or so all these peripheral groupings were undergoing major changes. In Italy, Rome was emerging; in Greece, mutual exhaustion among the cities was about to open the way for Philip of Macedon; in India, the power of Magadha threatened all other states; in China, the many competing states were being steadily reduced in number.

Athens joined in, but could do nothing concrete to help. The coalition was not much of a danger to Macedon; Philip could deal with the members, one at a time. 29 The threat cannot have been too serious, for most of Philip’s army was involved at Krenides and Potidaia at the time. 30 Philip finished off this sequence of victories by the siege of Methone; the ease with which Argaios had reached Aigai from there was ominous, and the city was an Athenian ally, so at war with Philip. It was a small city but well fortified, and its people defended the city stoutly.

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