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By J M O'Brien

Regardless of Alexander the Great's remarkable accomplishments, over the past seven years of his lifestyles, this indomitable warrior turned more and more unpredictable, sporadically violent, megalomaniacal, and suspicious of acquaintances in addition to enemies. What can have triggered this type of lamentable transformation?This biography seeks to reply to that question by means of assessing the function of alcohol in Alexander the Great's existence, utilizing the determine of Dionysus as a logo of its damaging results on his psyche. the original technique hired during this e-book explores quite a few features of Alexander's lifestyles whereas holding an ancient framework. The exposition of the most subject matter is dealt with in one of these manner that the biography will entice normal readers in addition to students.

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What prompted Philip to follow a course of action that guaranteed Olympias’ hostility and risked the alienation of his son and successor? As noted above, Plutarch says simply that Philip fell in love with Cleopatra. 134 Eros, it was said, loosens the limbs and damages the mind, and Philip may well have been the victim of Eros in this case. It is difficult to imagine Philip relying exclusively on his emotions, however, in a matter affecting affairs of state at such a critical stage in his career.

Finding himself too far removed from Pella to govern effectively, Philip decided to place Alexander in charge of the Royal Seal, and so appointed him regent. This first opportunity to act as a ruler was a testament to the time and effort Philip had spent on his son’s grooming, and Alexander eagerly accepted the responsibility. 104 Alexander promptly led a punitive expedition to the Upper Strymon, where he subdued the rebels, captured their center of operations, and reestablished it as a Macedonian colony.

Instead of destroying Athens, Philip sent home one of the prisoners, Demades, to discuss a peace treaty and an alliance. Thebes was punished for its presence at Chaeronea, but Athens was spared. Athenian captives were to be returned to Athens without ransom, and Macedonian troops would not set foot on Attic soil. The king’s only “request” was for an alliance, and this was agreed to with bewilderment and relief. THE COMING OF AGE IN MACEDONIA 25 Philip may have been equally relieved, for his true objective in Greece was to establish a general peace that would enable him to march on Asia without concern about the threat of imminent rebellion in Europe, or the need to maintain a significant force there.

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