Download Analysis with an introduction to proof. by Steven R. Lay PDF

By Steven R. Lay

through introducing good judgment and via emphasizing the constitution and nature of the arguments used, this booklet is helping readers transition from computationally orientated arithmetic to summary arithmetic with its emphasis on proofs. makes use of transparent expositions and examples, precious perform difficulties, a number of drawings, and chosen hints/answers. deals a brand new boxed evaluation of key phrases after each one part. Rewrites many routines. positive aspects greater than 250 true/false questions. contains greater than a hundred perform difficulties. offers tremendously high quality drawings to demonstrate key rules. presents quite a few examples and greater than 1,000 routines. an intensive reference for readers who have to bring up or brush up on their complicated arithmetic abilities.

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Usually, this causes 28 Logic and Proof no difficulty, but if there is a possibility of ambiguity, the careful writer will explicitly name the system being considered. When dealing with quantified statements, it is particularly important to know exactly what system is being considered. For example, the statement ∀ x, x2 = x is true in the context of the positive numbers but is false when considering all real numbers. Similarly, ∃x x2 = 25 and x < 3 is false for positive numbers and true for real numbers.

Thus x ∈ U and x ∉ B, so x ∈ U \B. But then x ∈ A and x ∈ U \B, so x ∈ A ∩ (U \B). Hence A \B ⊆ A ∩ (U \B). 14 B We begin by showing that A ∪ (B ∩ C) ⊆ (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C). If x ∈ A ∪ (B ∩ C), then either x ∈ A or x ∈ B ∩ C. If x ∈ A, then certainly x ∈ A ∪ B and x ∈ A ∪ C. Thus x ∈ (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C). On the other hand, if x ∈ B ∩ C, then x ∈ B and x ∈ C. But this implies that x ∈ A ∪ B and x ∈ A ∪ C, so x ∈ (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C). Hence A ∪ (B ∩ C) ⊆ (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C). Conversely, if y ∈ (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C), then y ∈ A ∪ B and y ∈ A ∪ C.

Hence it is an equivalence relation. (c) Let S be the set of all people who live in Chicago, and suppose that two people x and y are related by R if x lives within a mile of y. Then R is reflexive and symmetric, but not transitive. (a) Determine which of the three properties (reflexive, symmetric, and transitive) apply to each relation. ” (b) Let S be the set of real numbers and let R be the relation “ >. ” Given an equivalence relation R on a set S, it is natural to group together all the elements that are related to a particular element.

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