By Adrie J.J. Straathof, Patrick Adlercreutz
Describing the basic steps within the improvement of biocatalytic tactics from notion to of entirety, this conscientiously built-in textual content combines the basics of biocatalysis with technological adventure and in-depth advertisement case stories. The ebook starts off with an introductory examine the historical past and current scope of biocatalysis and proceeds to targeted overviews of specific components of curiosity. Written by way of commercial and educational specialists, utilized Biocatalysis may be a tremendous addition to the bookshelf for an individual educating the topic or operating within the chemical, meals production or pharmaceutical industries, who's looking to make the most the opportunity of biocatalysts.
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Extra info for Applied biocatalysis
2 Chiral Drugs Among the 1200 drugs presently (1998) under development, approximately half are developed as single enantiomers, 32% are achiral and the remaining 17% are either racemates or no decision has been made on the issue. In years to come it is expected that these figures will be shifted even more towards enantiopure drugs. For some racemic drugs already approved there are currently being developed processes for single enantiomers. It is common to call the most active enantiomer eutomer and the less active one distomer.
This is due to a combination of challenging biological problems, production of relevant enzymes by molecular biological techniques and skilled organic chemists. Glycosyltransferases are divided into two groups according to which activated donors they use for transfer of monosaccharides. The Leloir glycosyltransferases utilize eight nucleoside mono- or diphosphate sugars, UDP-Glc, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-Gal, UDPGalNAc, GDP-Man, GDP-Fuc, UDP-GlcUA and CMP-NeuAc. The Non-Leloir glycosyltransferases utilize glycosylphosphates as activated donors.
3 Carboxyl esterases and carboxyl lipases both act on carboxylic esters. They differ in the structure of esters they hydrolyse. Lipases work best on substrates with relatively uncomplicated (not branched) acyl parts. Esterases on the other hand are not that specific and may accept bulky acyl groups (R3). Moreover, the structure of the alkoxy part is not so critical. A general observation, however, is that if the stereocenter is far away from the center of reaction (ester oxygen), the catalysis is not stereospecific.