Download Aristotle by Otfried Höffe PDF

By Otfried Höffe

This is often an English translation of Otfried Hoffe's research, initially in German, providing the lifestyles and works of Aristotle, revealing him as a contemporary, forward-thinking thinker. topics of ethics, politics, metaphysics, psychology, biology and rhetoric are all mentioned and Aristotle is additionally in comparison to a variety of different philosophers, specially these of German starting place. Hoffe has been a number one contributor to debates on ethical, felony, political and philosophical matters for nearly thirty years.

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It also demonstrates considerable originality. With very little work done in the field before him, Aristotle develops logic as an autonomous science that is clear, thorough, practically free of errors, and, for the first time, has the elements of artificial languages. Russell’s disdain (19758, 212) has long been replaced by the insight that we have a work of “exemplary severity and logical purity” (Patzig 19693, 199). The text on the subject, the Prior Analytics, leaves aside all psychological, anthropological, and metaphysical aspects.

Given that a commitment to truth cannot be ensured from within the argumentation, and that, on the contrary, dialectic can be Fo r m s o f R a t i o n a l i t y 37 abused as mere technique, a good (moral) inclination (euphyia) is also necessary in addition to intellectual dexterity. The “dialectician” must provide the readiness to chose what is true and avoid what is false (Top. VIII 14, 163b12–16). The two other types of dialectical debates are less formalized. In an exchange of views, that is, a chance discussion, one discusses with untrained persons on the basis of their opinion, and in a philosophical or scientific discussion, first a multitude of views is deployed and then their pros and contras are discussed.

2 A N E PI S T E M I C H I E R A RC H Y The Metaphysics (I 1–2; cf. APo. II 19) opens with a gradation of epistemic abilities which, with its clear delimitations at both ends, is reminiscent of Hegel’s 26 ARISTOTLE Phänomenologie des Geistes. The sequence starts from an ultimately first knowledge, namely the perception of single things, and culminates in the highest knowledge possible, that is, philosophy, understood as the cognition of the first principles. Like Hegel, Aristotle, too, succeeds in deploying the wealth of epistemic possibilities without losing himself in mere variety.

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