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By C. S. Carver, M. F. Scheier

"Seek simplicity and mistrust it. " Alfred North Whitehead "It turns into all too transparent that a capability to work out styles in habit, a capability that a few may well suppose happy with, can lead extra simply to a fallacious description than a correct one. " William T. Powers The objective of the theorist-the scholar-is to take a suite of observations of the realm, and understand order in them. This approach inevitably imposes a man-made simplicity upon these observations. that's, particular observations are weighed another way from one another every time a theoretical account is abstracted from uncooked reviews. a few saw occasions are misunderstood or distorted, others are noticeable as representing random fluctuations and are overlooked, and but others are considered as centrally vital. This abstraction and oversimplification of fact is inevitable in concept building. additionally, the abstracted imaginative and prescient builds upon itself. that's, as a constitution starts off to emerge from persisted commentary, the constitution itself publications the hunt for brand spanking new details. the result's a development that's extra problematic than what existed sooner than, however it nonetheless is generally easier than fact. it can be crucial for students to think within the worth in their job, and within the basic correctness of the imaginative and prescient that courses their paintings. This dedication, and the wish of growth that follows from it, give the opportunity to proceed even if the paintings is tough and slow.

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Extra info for Attention and Self-Regulation: A Control-Theory Approach to Human Behavior

Sample text

Selectively attending to information that originates from within and concerns the self will be termed self-focus. We regard this dichotomy as important because, as will be seen in later chapters, focus on the self and focus on the environment have different experiential and behavioral consequences. We should note briefly that we assume (as did Duval & Wicklund, 1972) a relatively fixed-capacity model of attention, in the cases that we will be addressing. As attention outward increases, attention to the self will tend to diminish, and vice versa.

A point that was implicit in at least one of our illustrations of that principle was that the various levels of the hierarchy operate on different time scales (cf. Pew, 1974; Shallice, 1978). More specifically, a superordinate loop operates more slowly than do subordinate loops. The thermostat calls for adjustments of room temperature several times during an hour. But the man who is "conserving energy" makes adjustments in the thermostat only rarely. The goal of bringing room temperature into line takes just a few minutes.

The result is that they accelerate in one direction longer than they should, in order to counter their perceptions of continued movement in the opposite direction. If the time lag inherent in the system's responses is not properly taken into account, the system's behavior will be characterized by oscillation: overreaction first to one side of the reference value, and then to the other. If the overreactions in either direction are not too large, the system will behave as a negative feedback loop, but it will do so sloppily (see Figure 2-3-b).

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