By Raja Chatila, Simon Lacroix, Michel Devey, Thierry Siméon (auth.), Professor Anibal T. de Almeida, Professor Oussama Khatib (eds.)
This publication constitutes the displays made on the complex examine Workshop on self sufficient robot structures, which used to be held on the collage of Coimbra, Portugal, June 1997. the purpose of the assembly used to be to assemble best researchers within the zone of self sufficient platforms for mobility and manipulation, and the purpose of this ebook is to proportion the displays with the reader. The e-book offers the latest advancements within the box. themes contain sensors and navigation in cellular robots, robotic co-operation, telerobotics, legged robots, mountain climbing robots and purposes. current and rising functions of self sufficient syst ems are defined in nice element, together with purposes in forestry, cleansing, mining, tertiary structures, guidance to the aged and handicapped, and surgical procedure. The chapters are written in a established and complex instructional variety through prime experts from Europe, Australia, Japan and united states. the fashion will enable the reader to know the cutting-edge and study instructions within the sector of self sustaining systems.
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Additional info for Autonomous Robotic Systems
I . . . . a ,,....... ', .. , ........ , X o~ ..... # of frames i i I 10o i ; . : . . i ,......... *'..... :...... J i i i : . . . . . j:: : ~ ........ # of frames Figure 19. Motion flow and retinal disparity, left) targets moving along the horopter. right) targets moving outside the horopter. Differentiating Zc with respect to time, results OZc Ot B O0 2 cos 2 0 0 t " (25) Considering t h a t OZc BAv~ Ot = t~ - 4 f cos 2 0 (26) and replacing - ~ t in equation 25 results 0t~ Ot Av~ - - - 2f (27) t h a t represents the angular velocity of the vergence joints to m a i n t a i n vergence on the moving target.
3. 2. Gaussian Pyramid In order to speedup the computing process, the algorithms are based on the construction of a Gaussian pyramid . The images are captured with 512x512 pixels but are reduced by using this technique. Generally speaking, using a pyramid allows us to work with smaller images without missing significant information. Climbing one level on the pyramid results in an image with half the dimensions and one quarter of the size. Level 0 corresponds to 512x512 pixels and level 2 to 128x128.
Graphic scheme of the principle used for the control of the system. Since the mobile robot has more inertial mass than the active vision system, it will receive commands to cover the error. Very often the robot does not have possibility to eliminate all the errors. In that case it is the other fastest degree of freedom that tries to do it. If in the in-most level the object's movement can not be compensated for then it will be assumed that the target was lost and the pursuit process will re-start again.