By Hans-Jurgen Rehm
Quantity 10 on particular techniques completes the second one variation of the Biotechnology sequence delivering an summary on leading edge and certain fields of biotechnology. within the different volumes of the sequence many greater parts of biotechnology are taken care of with admire to valuable features, whereas quantity 10 covers extra really expert subject matters. parts that are expected to have a hugely promising destiny are nanobiotechnology, bioelectrochemical gas cells, bacteriorhodopsin and different components used as info structures. extra fields - even if small - are of present significance reminiscent of marine biotechnology, biotechnology in phytopathology, biotechnology with extremophiles, and biotechnology with protozoa. quantity 10 allows the reader to entry those and extra targeted fields of biotechnology. The confirmed caliber of in depth references presents an exceptional foundation to realize additional perception into the fields.
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Extra info for Biotechnology, 2nd Edition, Volume 10: Special Processes
Here, only general principles will be presented. Detailed descriptions of laboratory layout and equipment, procedures, and protocols for animal cell cultures have been published by FRESHNEY (2000) and DOYLEand GRIFFITHS(1998) and are also available on CD-ROM as multimedia guide including video sequences (FRESHNEY, 1999). Protocols for maintaining plant cell cultures have been de- 30 2 Maintenance of Cell Cultures - with Special Emphasis on Eukaryotic Cells Tab. 1. Advantages and Disadvantages Using Serum Advantages Disadvantages Complex mixture of growth factors, hormones, and other components supports growth of wide range of eukaryotic cell types chemically not defined, quantity and quality of constituents varies Binds and neutralizes toxins extensive testing necessary before use Contains protease inhibitors lack of reproducibilitydue to batch variations Facilitates attachment and spreading of cells standardizationof experimental and production protocols difficult ~ ~ ~ Increases buffering capacity risk of contamination Carrier proteins such as transferrin and albumin make essential components bioavailable contains growth and metabolism inhibitors Protects cells in agitated bioreactors from mechanical damage and shear forces influence on upstream and downstream processing due to high protein content in serum availability and costs fluctuating scribed by PAYNEet al.
Under appropriate conditions the current output of a bioelectrochemical fuel cell is dependent on the number of microorganisms inside the fuel cell and, moreover, it is dependent on the concentration of the added substrate. One early fuel cell sensor was described by MELE et al. (1979). These authors applied Pseudornonas ovalis in a bioelectrochemical fuel cell to monitor the catabolic activity and YAHIRO et al. (1963) DAVISet al. (1983) WILLNER et al. (1998) BERKand CANFIELD (1964) TANAKA et al.
Theoretically, cell lines could be maintained in culture indefinitely, however, this is not advisable. Genetic mutations accumulating with continuous passages, the increased risk of microbial or cellular contamination and simple practicable reasons necessitate the storage of well-defined stocks. Other cell cultures have only a limited life span and, therefore, cannot be cultured for prolonged periods of time. Of particular importance is the availability of authenticated and validated cells stocks for production purposes.