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By Prof. Dr. Germán Spangenberg, Dr. Zeng-Yu Wang, Prof. Dr. Ingo Potrykus (auth.)

This booklet exhibits the numerous growth made in developing the methodological foundation for the genetic manipulation of forage and turf grasses, with specific emphasis on our most vital temperate grasses, the fescues and ryegrasses. It offers designated and fantastically illustrated descriptions of all correct methodological features of molecular breeding of forage and turf grasses. the themes coated variety from the institution of plant regeneration platforms from in vitro cultures, the restoration of haploids and somaclonal editions, the combo of entire or partial genomes by way of somatic hybridization, and the construction of transgenic crops, to the advance of molecular markers.

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Bot Gaz 143: 454-465 Wang DY , Vasil IK (1982) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from inflorescence segments of Pennisetum purpureum Schum. (napier or elephant grass). Plant Sci Lett 25: 147154 Wang DY, Yan K (1984) Somatic embryogenesis in Echinochloa crusgalli. ). Plant Cell Rep 12: 95-100 Wang ZY, Nagel J, Potrykus I, Spangenberg G (1993b) Plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts in Lolium species. Plant Sci 94: 179-193 Wenck AR, Conger BV, Trigiano RN, Sams CE (1988) Inhibition of somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass by endogenous cytokinins.

Furthermore, protocols for the infection of tall fescue with N. coenophialum using callus cultures have been developed (Johnson et al. 1986; Kearney et al. 1991). Callus cultures derived from endophyte-free tall fescue have been inoculated with mycelium of the endophytic fungus. Up to 17% of the plants regenerated from the inoculated embryogenic callus cultures have proven to be infected with the endophyte. Assuming a genetic uniformity of the tall fescue plants recovered from single genotype-derived callus cultures, these procedures allow the infection of "clonal" plants with different isolates of the endophyte to study the individual contributions of the endophyte and the plant genotype towards traits associated with endophyte-infected tall fescue plants (Kearney et al.

Thus, anther culture provides means of recovering haploid and fertile homozygous doubled-haploid plants. The production and use of haploids and doubled haploids allows enhanced selection efficiency and speeds up crop improvement. It offers opportunities for identification and selection of recessive mutants and generates basic material for somatic hybridization and DNA marker mapping programs (Morrison and Evans 1988; Wenzel et al. 1995). 1. Anther culture in forage and turf grasses Plant species Culture response References Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) Callus Callus Green plants Green plants Niizeki and Kita (1973) Niizeki (1977) Kasperbauer et al.

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