By H. Kleinkauf, Hans von Döhren
Items of secondary metabolism from fermentation and cellphone tradition are in most cases prescribed drugs, starting from conventional antibacterials like beta-lactams, new new release compounds like dalbaheptides and lantibiotics to immunomodulators and antitumor medicines. the most important fields of software of those low volume/high cost items are human and veterinary drugs in addition to plant defense. during this quantity functionally established screening ways and the purposes of molecular genetics within the discovery and strategy development of compounds are emphasised. besides the exploitation of recent assets the turning out to be knowing of biosynthetic methods allows the id of the genetic backgrounds. themes integrated are: Novel Receptor-Active Compounds - Microbial Lipids - Microbial Siderophores - beta-Lactam Antibiotics - Peptide Antibiotics - Lantibiotics - Glycopeptide Antibiotics (Dalbaheptides) - Aminoglycosides - items from Basidiomycetes - Cyclosporins - Secondary items from Plant Cells - Antitumor brokers
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Extra resources for Biotechnology, Products of Secondary Metabolism
1996 2 Secondary Metabolism, an Expression of Cellular and Organismic Individuality 19 Tab. 3. (Continued) Compound Type Organism Selected References' TAKANO et al.. 1995 poly ket ide, glycosylated polyketide Aspergillus nidulans Colletotrichum lagenarium Streptomyces sp. , 1994 modified peptide Aspergillus nidulans, Penicillium chrysogenum heterocycle acylpeptidolactone polyketide/peptide Pseudomonas aureofaciens Streptomyces pristinaespiralis Streptomyces sp. , 1995 DE CRECY-LAGARD, personal Communication BECKet al..
Obvious morphological changes like sporulation or formation of aerial mycelia are caused by an undetermined number of respective genes, reading to sets of proteins and mediators promoting alterations in the cellular composition. Such changes include altered cell In connection with nutrient depletion carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate starvation are considered in general. The differential induction of metabolite forming processes has been excellently demonstrated by BUSHELLand FRYDAY(1983). Extensive studies of this aspect have also been conducted in the antibiotic fermentation of gramicidin S in Bacillus brevis.
1993) from Streptomyces violaceusniger inhibits germination of its own spores by interference with endogenous ATPase. , 1986) were shown to have autoregulatory functions. Moreover, streptomycetes can produce interspecific inducers such as anthranilic acid and basidifferquinone (Fig. , 1984). , 1985). They can be regarded as secondary metabolites since they do not possess any function in vegetative development. In addition, sexual factors from fungi and yeasts can be considered as functionalized secondary metabolites.