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N. Saddler, Eds. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1999, pp. 100-111. D. Mansfield, C. Mooney, and J. N. Saddler. "Substrate and Enzyme Characteristics that Limit Cellulose Hydrolysis" Biotechnology Progress, vol. 15, pp. 804-816, 1999. J. Woodward, M. K. Hayes, and N. E. Lee. "Hydrolysis of Cellulose by Saturating and Non-saturating Concentrations of Cellulase: Implications for Synergism" Bio/Technology, vol. 6, pp. 301-304, 1988. J. Woodward, M. Lima, and N. E. Lee. "The Role of Cellulase Concentration in Determining the Degree of Synergism in the Hydrolysis of Microcrystalline Cellulose" Biochemistry Journal, vol.

R. Ladisch, M. Voloch, J. A. Patterson, and C. H. Noller. "Effect of Pretreatment and Fermentation on Pore Size in Cellulosic Materials" Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 27, pp. 1427-1433, 1985. T. Sawada, Y. Nakamura, and F. Kobayashi. "Effects of Fungal Pretreatment and Steam Explosion Pretreatment on Enzymatic Saccharification of Plant Biomass" Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 48, pp. 719-724, 1995. H . H . Brownell and J. N. Saddler. "Steam-Explosion Pretreatment for Enzymatic Hydrolysis" Biotechnology and Bioengineering Symposium, vol.

Pretreatment solubilizes the hemicelluloses and renders the cellulose fraction more amenable to further processing for glucose production. Cellulose depolymerization (hydrolysis) can be achieved by both chemical (acids and bases) and enzymatic methods. Cellulose acid hydrolysis occurs at a much faster rate, but may 24 involve the risk of sugar degradation under non-optimum reaction conditions, such as excessively long residence times or fluctuations in temperature or acid concentration. Degradation of sugars, which in turn results in formation of byproducts with inhibitory effects on fermentative microorganisms, does not occur in enzymatic hydrolysis operations.

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