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By Mary R. Lefkowitz

Used to be Western civilization based by way of old Egyptians and Phoenicians?Can the traditional Egyptians usefully be known as black?Did the traditional Greeks borrow faith, technology, and philosophy from the Egyptians and Phoenicians?Have students neglected the Afroasiatic roots of Western civilization because of racism and anti-Semitism?In this selection of twenty essays, top students in a extensive diversity of disciplines confront the claims made by means of Martin Bernal in Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. In that paintings, Bernal proposed a thorough reinterpretation of the roots of classical civilization, contending that historic Greek tradition derived from Egypt and Phoenicia and that ecu students were biased opposed to the concept of Egyptian and Phoenician impact on Western civilization. The individuals to this quantity argue that Bernal's claims are exaggerated and in lots of instances unjustified.Topics lined comprise race and actual anthropology; the query of an Egyptian invasion of Greece; the origins of Greek language, philosophy, and technology; and racism and anti-Semitism in classical scholarship. within the end to the quantity, the editors suggest a wholly new scholarly framework for figuring out the connection among the cultures of the traditional close to East and Greece and the origins of Western civilization.

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Despite the claims of Polybius, it appears that the Achaeans were, like the Aetolians, prepared to expand by military action as well as through the more gentle arts of diplomacy. Aratus campaigned in Locris, on the other side of the Gulf of Corinth, and gained considerable renown for expelling the Macedonian garrison from the citadel of Corinth, thus (temporarily) relieving Greece of one of its ‘fetters’, or at least replacing a Macedonian shackle with an Achaean one. The Achaeans also took Mantinea in Arcadia by military force.

Macedon and Greece in the Century after Alexander the Great Ever since Philip II crushed Theban resistance at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, the kings of Macedon had considered the hegemony of southern Greece as a natural right. Few Greeks dared oppose this opinion after Philip's son, Alexander III (the Great), practically wiped Thebes off the map for attempting to rebel against Macedonian overlordship. After Alexander, Greece was effectively dominated by Macedonia's Antigonid dynasty who were descendants of Antigonus Gonatas, grandson of one of Alexander's generals.

After this Antigonus had still to fight off the attentions of Pyrrhus of Epirus (he of the Pyrrhic victories in Italy) before Macedon was anything near to being militarily secure. Through all of this Antigonus Gonatus managed to preserve the Macedonian grip on Greece, albeit by increasingly tyrannical measures. However, such was the devastation and depopulation caused by the invasions of Macedonia's heartland that even at the end of the third century the kingdom's population had not fully recovered.

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