By J.jr. Douglas, T. Dupont
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Extra info for Collocation Methods for Parabolic Equations in a Single Space Variable
These effects can be minimized by embedding the thermocouple within the workpiece to improve thermal transfer. Even when thermocouples are used for temperature measurement in gas atmospheres, where the thermal coupling is better than it is in a vacuum, a change in the measured temperature will lag behind that actually occurring. This delay, which can be of the order of seconds, is difficult to measure accurately, but it must be taken into account if a thermocouple is being used to monitor the temperature of assemblies exposed to high heating and cooling rates.
Some ingenuity has been applied to other, lessdirect methods of selective application of applying ﬁller metals. One of these exploits a chemical reaction to selectively apply tin-lead solder to ﬁne-pitch pads on printed circuit boards without the normal complexity of precision stencil printing. The so-called “Super Solder” system uses tin powder combined with a lead salt of an organic acid to make a paste. On heating, the organic acid decomposes, thereby providing a partial ﬂuxing action, and the lead so liberated combines with the tin to form the solder alloy in situ.
16 Actual area of rough surface Plan area At the same time, by producing a network of ﬁne channels, the texturing may increase the capillary force acting between the ﬁller and the component surfaces. Both phenomena will tend to aid spreading. A directionally oriented surface texture promotes preferential ﬂow parallel to the channeling [Nicholas and Crispin 1986]. , the root angle of V-shaped valleys), then profuse wetting tends to occur along the valleys. This is a frequent observation and, indeed, represents a problem when soldering to rough machined surfaces in that the ﬁller does not spread uniformly in all directions.